Vygotsky research paper

He focused on the principal precepts of cognitive learning zones. The Zone of Actual Development occurs when children manifest abilities to execute their tasks on their own successfully, especially at circumstances where the child does not require learning new ideas. The constructivist theories of Piagetian and Vygotskian encompass some fundamental aspects of the child cognitive development.

These theories are relatively similar but, they manifest relevant differences. As such, a child is ought to complete the stages in a sequence, in which the cognitive development begins with the sensori-motor stage and progresses to the pre-operational stage. Thereafter, the child enters the concrete stage characterized with independence in the expression of ideas followed by the formal operations stage, in which the child assumes adult thinking.

He reported that, children acquire extensive knowledge from knowledgeable peers and adults, especially through communications and peer interaction Slanders, Concisely, Piaget portrayed child cognitive development as an adaptation process, in which continuous progression of accommodation and assimilation play fundamental roles in knowledge development. On the other hand, Vygotsky describes the process of cognitive development as a product of an appropriation of the child thinking pattern, in which the child learns from competent individuals during their social interactions. However, it is noting that Piaget and Vygotsky agree universally on the constructive aspect of intellectual development LeGard, Great Theorists.

P K Patrick Kimuyu Author.


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Add to cart. Introduction Child development appears to be one of the most studied phenomena of human development, especially with regard to cognitive and biopsychology. Background of Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky It seems quite interesting to learn that these two renowned theorists were born at the same time, although their lifespan was different and, their socio-cultural background and source of motivation were quite different; hence their diverse perception on child development.

Jean Piaget Jean Piaget, a psychologist was born in Switzerland, in and, he is known to have possessed immense biological orientation. Le Vygotsky Lev Vygotsky, a philosopher was born in in Russia and, he was fundamentally history and philosophy oriented. Comparison The constructivist theories of Piagetian and Vygotskian encompass some fundamental aspects of the child cognitive development. What is a mistake? A lie? Through observation and study Vygotsky came to understand that people adapted to their surrounding environment based on their interpretations and individual perceptions of it.

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Rather, one gains knowledge as one develops by way of social interactions with peers and adults. Vygotsky does not make as drastic a distinction between knowledge and belief as some other heorists do. For him, knowledge is obtained through past experiences, social situations, as well as ones general environment.

Vygotsky Theory of Cognitive Development- ZPD & Scaffolding-Lecture - 11-CDP Content-CTET-2019

In similar manner, beliefs are instilled into an individual via culture and parental upbringing. They are important in that they impact future learning. For example one might feel one way but report a more socially acceptable reality. Theory of Human Nature: What is a human being? How does it differ from other species? What are the limits of human potential? In its reality it is the ensemble of the social relations. His view of human nature fits with his Marxist ideology.

Human beings can only be understood within the context the time period and the part of the world in which they live.

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Human nature cannot be understood as never-changing and universal, but as always depending on its specific social and historical formation. This principle does not leave out biological factors. Naturally, this is continued through adulthood, as speech is a primary tool used for learning.


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It is this adaptive capacity that distinguishes humans from lower forms of life. It can only acquire new habits. It can through exercises and combinations perfect its intellect, but is not capable of mental development through instruction in the real sense of the word. Theory of Learning: What is learning?

Compare and contrast Piaget's and Vygotsky's views of cognitive

How are skills and knowledge acquired? According to Piaget, learning is what results from both mental and physical maturation plus experience. In contrast Vygotsky observed that learning processes lead development. According to Vygotsky the two primary means of learning occur through social interaction and language. The most important fact uncovered through the … study of thought and speech is that their relationship undergoes many changes.

The zone of proximal development works in conjunction with the use of scaffolding.


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  5. Scaffolding is a six-step approach to assisting learning and development of individuals within their zone of proximal development. The use of language and shared experience is essential to successfully implementing scaffolding as a learning tool. Theory of Transmission: Who is to teach? By what methods? What will the curriculum be? However, this is not always the case. Other possibilities for the MKO could be a peer, sibling, a younger person, or even a computer. The key to MKO is that they must have more knowledge about the topic being learned than the learner does.

    Once the learner is actively participating, the given task should be simplified by breaking it into smaller subtasks. During this task, the teacher needs to keep the learner focused, while concentrating on the most important ideas of the assignment.

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    One of the most integral steps in scaffolding consists of keeping the learner from becoming frustrated. The final task associated with scaffolding involves the teacher modeling possible ways of completing tasks, which the learner can then imitate and eventually internalize. This social context promotes sustained achievement and cognitive growth for less competent students.

    Lev Vygotsky

    In-class opportunities for collaboration on difficult problem-solving tasks will offer support to students who are struggling with the material. By interacting with more capable students who continue to mediate transactions between the struggling students and the content, all students will benefit. In other words, children learn by solving problems with the help of the teacher, who models processes for them and his or her eers, in a classroom environment that is directed by the teacher.